Guru Gobind Singh Ji is the tenth Guru of the Sikhs. He was the only son of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji. He was born to Mata Gujri Ji on December 22nd, 1666 at Sri Patna Sahib Ji in Bihar when his father was on a preaching mission to holy places in Assam. Birth name of Guru Ji was Gobind Rai. He was received Guruship at the age of nine after the martyrdom of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji at Delhi.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji had four sons namely;
1. Baba Ajit Singh Ji,
2. Baba Jujhar Singh Ji,
3. Baba Zorawar Singh Ji,
4. Baba Fateh Singh Ji.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji was a great warrior and a spiritual leader. He had to spend most of his time fighting against the oppression and suppression committed by the unjust forces. He was a unique nation builder who fought for righteousness. He sacrificed his all for human liberty, equality and fraternity. Two of his youngest sons were bricked alive. Sahibzade Ajit Singh Ji and Jujhar Singh Ji were martyred in the battle of Chamkaur Sahib.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji revealed the order of the Khalsa Brotherhood at Sri Anandpur Sahib Ji.
On the day of Baisakhi in 1699 at Anandpur Sahib Ji, Guru Gobind Singh Ji urged the Sikhs to take a pledge to lead a pure life as taught by the other nine Gurus. Amrit was prepared and the first five Sikhs were initiated into the order of Khalsa Panth. Thereafter, the Guru took initiation from the Panj Pyaras and merged entity of Guru Ji into Panth and entity of Panth into Guru. Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave the name of ‘Singh’ to males and ‘Kaur’ to females respectively to be used after their first name.
The Sikhs were ordained to wear five Kakars and also to lead an exemplary life of Sikh Rehat. They were required to stay away from committing Kurehts, that is, they were ordained not to trim hair, not to use intoxicants, not to eat Kutha meat and never to commit adultery. The above event took presence at a place now called Takht Sri Kesgarh Sahib Ji at Anandpur Sahib Ji. Hola Mohalla and Baisakhi are celebrated every year at Sri Anandpur Sahib Ji. Guru Gobind Singh Ji gave enormous importance to the Khalsa Rehat and wearing of five articles of Sikh faith. He specifically stated that so long as Khalsa lives under Rehat and discipline, I am delighted.
“Rehani rahe soi Sikh mera, oh Sahib mein uss ka chera.”
Pir Budhu Shah fought for Guru Gobind Singh Ji in the battle of Bhangani. Guru Gobind Singh Ji had to vacate Anandpur Sahib Ji in good faith during 1704. Army of the enemy attacked him at night when the Guru Ji was crossing rivulet Sirsa. The last battle was fought against tyrant Mughals at Khidrana, Muktsar (Punjab, India). The Guru Ji sacrificed his great grand father, father, four sons and mother for the Khalsa Panth.
Guru Gobind Singh advocated,
“When all other means fail to uphold righteousness, it is morally right to take up arms.”
Guru Gobind Singh Ji composed several works, which later were compiled into Dasam Granth Ji by Bhai Mani Singh Ji. Before his death at the hands of an assailant in 1708, the Guru Ji added the writings of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji to the Sikh scriptures. He added Bani of Guru Tegh Bahadur Sahib Ji into Adi Granth Ji thereby giving a final revision to its form at Damdama Sahib Ji. The Guru Ji declared the lineage of living Gurus finished, and requested his followers to seek spiritual guidance from the Guru Granth Sahib Ji. In essence, the light of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the first Guru, was to be forever enshrined within the pages of the Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
Guru Ji conferred Guruship upon Guru Granth Sahib Ji in 1708 at Nanded before he demised. To illustrate his point that the Guru Granth Sahib Ji was the final Guru of the Sikhs, and as a sign of humility, Guru Gobind Singh Ji did not include his writings, over 1400 pages worth of gurbani are in the Guru Granth Sahib Ji. A separate volume, called Dasam Granth, features the writings of the tenth Sikh Guru. Before his departure from this world, Guru Gobind Singh detailed Banda Singh Bahadur Ji to fight against oppression and suppression. Guru Ji also gave blessing to many institutions of the Khalsa Panth, which are currently preaching the morals of Sikhism to the entire world.